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[100] years ago, the United States how to "steal" the concept of modern art?

For a long time, the United States is the center of avant-garde art, but this is not always the case. American art world because of the rise of multiple and complex, which, in part a consequence of the Second World War produced a variety of Composite. After World War II and the Cold War spawned a number of collectors politicians, who with American modernism as a weapon, and take full advantage of the superiority of American culture as a powerful proof. However, the United States dominated the world of art is inseparable from the European avant-garde art absorption and transformation. As Serge Habitat Er Bute (Serge Guilbaut) said, if the "New York stole the idea of ​​modern art," which first have to understand modern art. Perhaps, in addition to the International Exhibition of Modern Art in New York in 1913 at the 69th Regiment Armory, no event can the American avant-garde art as a landmark moment of awakening. As we all know, the Armory Art not only shaken the young American artists, enabling them to experiment new forms of dialogue; and also divided the American people, the people who support open avant-garde art of ideas and thought they were the opponents on People lasting between massive war.


William-Adolphe Bouguereau painting created in 1896 "wave", is now a private collection
18 and 19th centuries, artists usually trained in the formal Art Institute, where realism is dominant. Academic art prefer soft and perfect lines form the hidden presence of the artist. Mid-19th century, many European artists who had revolted academic art, but the turning point in the century of the United States, and exhibition of college style model is still strong. Thus, in 1911, four young artists tired of academic --Jerome Myers, Elmer MacRae, Walt Kuhn and and Henry Fitch Taylor-- gallery in New York, Madison (Madison Gallery) met to discuss the new strategy for the United States art exhibition.
This small group later gave birth to the Association of American Painters and Sculptors (AAPS), the number of young anti-academic artists. In 1913, the association planned Armory Art Exhibition. At this time, the functions of AAPS has been expanded to include the latest art in Europe to bring the American audience. AAPS President of this exhibition before beginning the following speech:
Members of this association has been able to show you the American artist - a young American artist, it is a group of fearless, and need not fear the people of the European thought and culture. They believe that art should be the best person to dominate. The exhibition will be a new era in American art history. Tonight will be the history of the United States and even the entire history of modern art memorable night.
Members of the association decided it was time to let the American people see for themselves the new art form pioneered by Europeans, and to judge it.
So, when the opportunity "to judge", the Americans how to understand this new art of it?


Paul Cezanne oil paintings 1895-1896 "woman wearing flounced hat", is now in the possession of the National Gallery, London, UK
Armory Art Exhibition on display from the United States and other countries, more than three hundred two hundred pieces of works of the artist. They are emerging painter to Paul Cezanne (Cézanne), Van Gogh (Van Gogh) and Paul Gauguin (Gauguin) represented. However, those who inspired the imagination and even offended their works are only recently become a classic of the genre - cubism decomposition and a strong deviation from the sense of space became the talk of the streets. One painting becoming the Armory Art Exhibition "winner" - "Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2" (1912), the painting by the French artist Marcel Duchamp (Marcel Duchamp) creation, at a later years, Duchamp in hostility and attack opponents gradually fame.


"Nude Descending a Staircase No. 2" Marcel Duchamp 1912 oil paintings, now in the possession Philadelphia Museum of Art
Why "Nude" painting exhibition and stand out from the other Cubist works of art? First, the schema of debris richer violence and coarseness than similar paintings; and the line closely, interspersed overlap, and similar to the traditional stroke. Meanwhile, other cubist works of this period emphasize the same instant multidimensional - that an artist can express a topic from multiple angles. "Nude" This painting is about the timing of this strategy and futurism combine to symbolize the multiplicity of time. Therefore, it is designed at least two completely different psychological twist. In other words, the painting from a variety of angles presents a woman down the stairs and the different stages of this woman down the stairs when the stairs. Research on sports photography and filming techniques in painting such a way the processing time and Eadweard Muybridge · (Eadweard J. Muybridge) earlier conducted consistent. But Duchamp take line drawings and visual disturbances combined strategy will work under the recognizable and unrecognizable, and should not be interpreted between Interpretation: Sometimes you may understand, but sometimes you fell into perplexity. To some extent, "Nude" irritate viewers, because although they think they already understand the meaning, but in fact is still a tiny fraction; what really makes the viewer aware of a distress is not aware of the result, but began to appreciate paintings moment into the wrong understanding. The picture at the bottom of at least six triangular shadow of nudes easily be regarded as bent legs, five elliptical shape is reminiscent of the middle portion of the hip. However, when you effortlessly identify the top right corner of the looming face when the picture in the upper left area of ​​numerous lines and edges are difficult to readily form a recognizable pattern. By intentionally deviate from traditional painting, photography and film while borrowed artistic techniques, occurs by showing interwoven lines overlapping Mirage, painting pictures full of tension and a sense of rhythm, Duchamp tells the story of modern life so some changes: perhaps, the industrial age, the rapid development of science and technology gradually changed our feelings and cognition, and even change the speed of light is also unknown.
For "Nude" painting references a famous critique of modernity metaphor, Julian Street said it was "a shingle factory explosion", but this is not the work of Duchamp criticizing only "creativity." And so forth, "Nude" was also described as "a bunch of golf clubs and bag of dressing," "a wide range of semi-finished leather saddle," "after the earthquake the elevated tracks," "dynamic Japanese armor clothes "," brown card nightmare "," orderly placed broken violin "and so on. In these harsh metaphor, "shingle plant explosion" two distinct things modernity - an explosion and plant linked to popular, today still often used to describe the works of Duchamp.
Although the painting to obtain a unique attention, but attention society is not just limited to "Nude" itself. "New York Times" on this Armory Art Exhibition commentary on issues such begins:
What Cubism and Futurism works mean? These reformist spy ancestors really step into the future and using a kind of general public is extremely profound artistic way to express? They work in the end is the history of the development of the arts shine stone? Or garbage?


Francis Picabia painting created in 1912 "Spring Dance", now in the possession Philadelphia Museum of Art
Readers wrote to the local newspaper and the city, call this art "very ridiculous" and protests that it is "invisible arrogant." Gertrude Stein (Gertrude Stein), as the fans who are the most criticism of the work of art, has been repeatedly attacked. An author complained Stein comment sounds like a drunk "after dinner a sudden rise of the talk."
US President Theodore Roosevelt, trying to maintain a fair and impartial in the incident, his outlook on the magazine wrote: "We can not ignore the emerging European power of art, and to show our people that shares new artistic trends, for that matter, exhibitors are very correct "after a brief recognition, he continued:". but this does not mean that I fully accept these people's actions: the introduction of European extremism and exhibition artists "in other words, Americans should. Dong Xiao timely European avant-garde art direction, but never recognized these rebellious artistic.
In "Nude" is the exhibition of the month, almost every day there is news about the Armory Art Exhibition, the audience packed the newspaper continued. Many writers do not consciously exhibition with P. T. Barnum (American 19th century famous circus old version) of the circus par. Armory Art turned into a circus.
March 29, 1913, after the closing of Art for two weeks, "Literature Summary" (The Literary Digest) to "art criticism riots" in the title published a series of letters sent to various media nationwide, the contents of some letters Shocking. A man claiming to be scientists, scientific language support Cubism artists and critics used was very furious. He wrote:

We know the feeling of "re-creation" it is in fact impossible to create - even in memory - because that is when they disappear forever. Replace them but not feeling memory, memory is not a feeling. Dinner meal wonderful experience to bring the feeling once disappears, it can not be reproduced in any case (it is impossible to draw its portrait to copy) through memory, the chefs are very lucky. Furthermore, sensory or "excitement" in memory of the dinner experience is not the feeling itself, nor is any other memory status brings excitement.

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